In nigeria, inadequate supply of pipe borne water is a major concern. Ogundele1 1department of minerals and petroleum resources engineering, auchi polytechnic, auchi, nigeria 2department of geology, university of benin, benin city, nigeria email. Thus, having reliably clean groundwater is of concern for many throughout the world. One of the major sources of pollution of groundwater is by saltwater intrusions. Groundwater vulnerability assessment and validation for a. Groundwater in major cities of nigeria is exposed to active pollution arising from urbanization and indiscriminate waste disposal, since these cities are. There are reports of metals contamination of groundwater from mining. Thorough examination of the chemical characteristics of groundwater in residents around these so called landfills is thus paramount. Examining groundwater pollution in central katsina city, nigeria 26 fig. The sokoto basin in the northwest is part of the vast iullemenden basin of mali, niger and algeria.
Petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of the environment associated with exploration, development and production operations is a common feature in oil producing nations around the world, especially in a developing country like nigeria where the incidence of facilities sabotage, operational failures, accidental discharges, pipeline vandalization and leakages, bunkering and artisanal refining is. These decisions are basically supported by drastic ddepth to water, rrecharge, aaquifer media, ssoil media, ttopography, iimpact of vadose zone, chydraulic conductivity analysis. Nigeria is currently divided into 36 states with abuja as the federal capital. Assessment of groundwater pollution using geophysical norms and gis as a tool, a case study of part of ikeja, lagos state, nigeria, west africa the study area is located within the western part of nigeria, a zone of coastal creek and lagoon elueze, et al, 2004. Evaluation and protection strategies a thesis submitted to the university of manchester for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the faculty of engineering and physical sciences 2012 ahmed fate ali school of mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering. Geophysical evaluation of groundwater potential in part of. The current research examined the level of groundwater contamination near a municipal landfill site in alimosho local government area of lagos state, nigeria. B c egboka, g i nwankwor, i p orajaka, and a o ejiofor department of geological sciences, anambra state university of technology, awka, nigeria. But, groundwater can become contaminated with chemicals, biologic organisms, and other possiblyharmful agents. The vast water resources in nigeria can be categorized into fresh surface water includ es. Pdf vulnerability assessment of groundwater pollution in. A total of eighteen groundwater exploitation borehole logs together with hydrogeological and geotechnical data were used for the study. The average level of nitrate in groundwater in nigeria has increased in the last 2030 years.
Nigeria, boarded in the south by the atlantic ocean, in the north and east by ogun state and in the west by republic of benin. Analysis were carried out on physicochemical parameters ph, salinity, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate, calcium. Pollution vulnerability and health risk assessment of. Cemeteries in nigeria have never been perceived as having a significant potential contamination to the environment and are often located within residential setups. Integration of gis and geoelectric surveying for the assessment of groundwater pollution, a case study of part of ikeja, lagos state, west africa, nigeria. Using the case of groundwater pollution in nigerias niger delta, this paper examines the shifting contours of primitive accumulation in the region. Harter 2008 defined groundwater pollution from the human dimension as undesirable change in the groundwater quality resulting from human activities. Using a mixedmethods methodology, the paper explores domestic practices of groundwater abstraction in lagos, nigeria. The objective of the study therefore was to assess the effect of landfill pollution on groundwater quality in akure, nigeria. Indicators of health risks from surface water and groundwater contamination in urban centers of. Groundwater quality assessment near a municipal landfill.
The surface water resources potential of the country is estimated at 267. Assessment of groundwater quality and saline intrusions in. Sandyarami 2009 defines groundwater pollution as the change in the properties of groundwater due to contamination by microbes, chemicals, hazardous substance and other foreign particles. The sedimentary basins generally form the best aquifers. Countries off the track of achieving mdg 7c shade source. This is based on the analyses of groundwater samples from over 2,200 wells 19852004 and 350. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in southern africa. However, groundwater is exposed to active pollution in major cities and rural. The aim is to recommend new management strategies that can ensure sustainable groundwater resource management in the region.
Also, it has been reported by several drilling companies in the coastal city of lagos that the groundwater from the confined aquifer in the study area is corrosive and it is associated with the severe environmental pollution resulting from marine transgression into the fresh aquifer system in. The climate is tropical continental type, classified according to kopens climate classification as. To what extent this pollution has affected the water wells in the area is unknown and hence needed to be determined. Groundwater quality was monitored in 10 wells in the proximity of solid and liquid waste disposal systems in damaturu, nigeria. Jun 14, 2019 cemeteries in nigeria have never been perceived as having a significant potential contamination to the environment and are often located within residential setups. Environmental impact of leachate pollution on groundwater.
Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater. Groundwater pollution threats of solid waste disposal in. Pdf groundwater is the main source of water for domestic use in nigeria because it is perceived to be clean. The presence of geogenic contaminants arsenic and fluoride, and the level of awareness of their presence in groundwater in ibadan, nigeria. Water samples were collected from fifteen 15 boreholes. Environmental protection agency 2012 drinkingwater advi soryconsumer. Groundwater contamination and their flow characteristics in ibadan was studied by ajibade et. The climate is tropical continental type, classified according to kopens climate classification as aw, with long dry season and short wet season 6. The physicochemical quality of groundwater in relation to surface water pollution in majidun area of ikorodu, lagos state, nigeria.
Geochemical and quality assessment of groundwater in some. Nigeria might have a population of 320 million people by 2060. Accepted manuscript open access domestic groundwater. The deleterious impacts of dumpsite activities and the associated risk on both the environment and human is consequential, hence this study assessed groundwater vulnerability to pollution from dumpsite using a modified drastic model. Leachate and groundwater quality in lagos state, nigeria. The cities of calabar and port harcourt are totally dependent on. Groundwater pollution in africa 1st edition yongxin xu. Abstract this study x rayed the geochemical characteristics of groundwater quality of the growing city of yenagoa, the bayelsa state capital. Groundwater in major cities of nigeria is exposed to active pollution arising from urbanization. Pdf groundwater contamination at waste disposal sites at. This paper provides a broad overview of issues on groundwater condition and management in the kano region of northwestern nigeria. Main sources of urban groundwater pollution in south africa with some of their. Lagos is the worlds sixth largest city, the most populous city in africa and the most populous city innigeria. Saline intrusions into coastal groundwater via aquifer penetration have become a major concern 1 because it is the commonest source of pollution to groundwater.
Nigeria and have a processing capacity of 175,000 tons per day of crushed ore. The data required for assessing ground water pollution potential i. Groundwater contamination in nigeria is of great concern as most aquifers are used for domestic water supply purposes and in some cases, marketed as sachet or bottled water. Ground water pollution from mining activities in ikpeshi, edo state, nigeria g. The catchment area contains mineralized rocks which contain solid minerals, and usually have elevated metal level.
The extent of saltwater intrusions into groundwater is dependent on several natural and anthropogenic factors. Groundwater in nigeria is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial supplies. Henry olawale sawyerr, adedotun timothy adeolu, abiodun segun afolabi, oluwatoyosi olalekan salami, and biola kazeem badmos 2017 impact of dumpsites on the quality of soil and groundwater in satellite towns of the federal capital territory, abuja, nigeria. Public health effects due to insufficient groundwater. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater pollution in the vicinity of an active dumpsite olusosun, lagos, nigeria. Examining groundwater pollution in central katsina city, nigeria. Groundwater pollution threats of solid waste disposal in urban kano, nigeria. Pdf nitrate pollution of groundwater in nigeria segun. As the trace metal content of river water is normally controlled by the abundance of.
Adekunle im, adetunji mt, gbadebo am, banjoko ob 2007 assess. Environmental protection agency 2012 drinkingwater advi sory consumer. The inhabitants rely mainly on low yield, pollution prone shallow wells many of which dries up during dry season. The presence of geogenic contaminants arsenic and fluoride, and the level of awareness of their presence in groundwater in ibadan, nigeria was examined in this study. This is based on the analyses of groundwater samples from over 2,200 wells 19852004 and 350 samples pre1970.
In this study, nitrate, ph, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, hardness, colour, iron, chloride. Assessment of groundwater pollution using geophysical. These values indicated that ground water in the area in slightly acidic, this could be attributed to the abundance of organic matters in the overlying soil and the presence of shale intercalations in the aquiferous coastal plain sands and also due to acid rain caused by prevalent gas flaring in the niger delta. Examining groundwater pollution in central katsina city. Petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of surface water and. Environmental impact on surface and ground water pollution. Assessment of groundwater pollution using geophysical norms. Jimoh rafiu atanda1, omogunloye olusola, gabriel2 1 department of water science and engineering, unescoihe, institute for water education, p. Groundwater is crutial to millions of americans as well as many more worldwide. Groundwater quality in cameroon and its vulnerability to pollution.
Studies have shown that nigeria urban groundwater quality is influenced by the geology and geochemistry of the environment, rate of urbanization, industrialization, landfilldumpsite leachates, heavy metals, bacteriological pollution, and effect of seasons. Characterization of diffuse pollution of shallow groundwater in the harare urban area, zimbabwe. The eighteen available borehole logs were categorized into seven areas spanning the shoreline to inland boundary oflagosstate. Ojuri4 1department of chemistry, lagos state university, p.
Impact of dumpsites on the quality of soil and groundwater. There is an excessive quantity of water stored in nigerias underground aquifers sited in several hydrological districts adjacent to major rivers. Nigeria like many areas in southwestern nigeria it is a community of indigenous rural people and students of a nonresidential olabisi onabanjo university, which lacks municipal water supply. There is mounting apprehension that the water sources. Groundwater contamination in agbowo community, ibadan. Concern over groundwater pollution in lagosopinion the. Burial practice and its effect on groundwater pollution in.
Quality assessment of groundwater in yenagoa, niger delta. Safeguarding groundwater from pollution is largely a global political decision. Groundwater is the main source of water for domestic use in nigeria because it is perceived to be clean. This study xrayed the geochemical characteristics of groundwater quality of the growing city of yenagoa, the bayelsa state capital. As with surface water pollution, there is a large natural variability in the generation and fate of groundwater nps pollution. A study was carried out to determine groundwater contamination levels on waste disposal sites of ibadan city center in nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty groundwater samples were collected from hand dug wells which tap into shallow. Others include seepages from underground storage tanks, oil wells, sep. Geology of study area the city of lagos lies in southwestern nigeria, on the atlantic coast in the gulf of guinea, within latitudes 6 0 23. Groundwater contamination in ibadan, southwest nigeria ncbi. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of. Water quality parameters physicochemical and heavy metals of leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed. Department of geology, niger delta university, nigeria.
Major aquifers in the coastal zone of western nigeria have thicknesses ranging between 100 and 250 m with mean groundwater storage of 2. The physicochemical quality of groundwater in relation to. Furthermore, water quality index wqi is an effective tool for groundwater quality evaluation and management. However, groundwater is exposed to active pollution in major cities and rural communities of nigeria due to increased urbanization, indiscriminate waste disposals, intensive agricultural practices and industrial activities. The joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation estimate that in 2018 60% of the total population were dependent on groundwater point sources for their main drinking water source. Chronicle of water supply in nigeria groundwater development in nigeria began as far back. Quality assessment of groundwater in yenagoa, niger delta, nigeria. Waterscapes of nigerias niger delta victor ogbonnaya okorie abstract. Groundwater contamination in ibadan, southwest nigeria. Groundwater condition and management in kano region. Impact of dumpsites on the quality of soil and groundwater in. Pollution vulnerability and health risk assessment of groundwater around an engineering landfill in lagos, nigeria abdulrafiu o. Assessment of spatial relationship between groundwater. Groundwater availability groundwater constitutes an important source of water for domestic supply and agriculture in nigeria.
The groundwater of forty wells in agbowo community was assessed for total aerobic bacteria. Pdf groundwater contamination in ibadan, southwest nigeria. The project addressed the issue of aquifer vulnerability and the protection of groundwater quality. Groundwater pollution would result from the same toxic overburden. Surface water and groundwater contamination, air pollution, solid waste dumps and general environmental degradation, including the loss of land and aquatic. Indicators of health risks from surface water and groundwater. Integration of gis and geoelectric surveying for the. Groundwater quality in cameroon and its vulnerability to pollution 47. A total of one hundred and twenty groundwater samples were collected from hand dug wells which tap into shallow aquifers. Risks of groundwater pollution in the coastal areas of.
Spatial and temporal distribution of nitrate pollution in. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater pollution in the. This has been managed with the weight of such bodies as unicef established in nigeria in 1952 and wateraid which began work in nigeria in 1995 to assist with the vast water and sanitation needs found and has since. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in southern africa 15 g. Preventing groundwater pollution from landfilled wasteis engineered containment an acceptable solutionin groundwater quality edited by h. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries. Based on two years of ethnographic research, the paper unravels the losses experienced by individuals and their dependents. Introduction groundwater is a major source of water supply for domestic, agricultural, recreational, and industrial purposes in lagos, a fast emerging mega city in africa.1406 1015 776 934 1223 556 993 583 1224 600 91 776 1291 41 882 853 364 67 125 21 872 1452 1415 1226 829 985 459 1139 287 108 1074 701 154 839 963 1415 458 1390 429